Gonorrhea Infection : What you need to know about Gonorrhea

What is gonorrhea infection?

Gonorrhea is a common sexually transmitted bacterial infection caused by a bacteria called Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This condition is sometimes called ‘the clap’. It is a common condition. Gonorrhea tends to infect the urethra (the tube between the bladder and the skin) as well as the cervix in women. Typical symptoms are pain when urinating and discharge from the urethra. Many people with gonorrhea have no symptoms, and are diagnosed by screening tests (testing people who have no symptoms). Gonorrhea is treated with antibiotics. Sexual partners must also be treated. If treated at an early stage, most people recover well and have no ongoing problems. Untreated infections can cause complications, including infertility.


Transmission of gonorrhea occurs most often during unprotected sex with an infected partner. Also, it is possible for a newborn to get this condition from their mother during birth. People between 15 and 35 are most likely to get gonorrhea. People who have sex without using condoms increase their risk of getting gonorrhea.


Gonorrhea often does not cause any symptoms. Both men and women can have burning pain while urinating. Men may have a clear or yellow discharge from the penis, pain with ejaculating or a swollen testicle. Women may have clear or yellow vaginal discharge, vaginal bleeding after sex or between periods and pain in the lower part of the belly. If there is an gonorrhea infection in other parts of the body, symptoms might include a sore throat, painful bowel movements or a discharge from the anus. If a newborn gets the infection from its mother during birth, they might have conjunctivitis (an eye infection) or a throat infection.


Diagnosis is based on a swab of the genitals (the penis or cervix) or other infected body parts where the Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria are found. Signs of gonorrhea may also be discovered during a gynecological exam.


Gonorrhea is treated with antibiotics. It is important to tell sexual partners about the diagnosis, so that they can also be treated too.


Using condoms during sexual intercourse prevents the infectious spread of gonorrhea. The sexual partners of the infected person must also be treated to prevent reinfection.

Cervical Cancer : Risks, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention

What is cervical cancer?

Cervical cancer is a cancer of the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus (the womb) that opens into the vagina. Cervical cancer is a common cancer in women. Most cervical cancer is caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV or wart virus). This virus causes changes in the cervical cells that may develop into cancer over time. Symptoms may include unusual vaginal discharge, pain during sex and vaginal bleeding after sex, between periods or after the menopause. The treatment may consist of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation. If discovered at an early stage it is likely to be cured.


Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women. Most cases are caused by infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV or wart virus). People who have unprotected sex or who first have sex at an early age are more likely to get HPV and develop cervical cancer. People with a very weak immune system are also at higher risk of cervical cancer. Other things that increase the risk of cervical cancer are smoking and having a relative who has had cervical cancer.


Symptoms include vaginal discharge, vaginal bleeding in between menstruation or after sex, pain during sex and pain in the lower part of the belly. Many women with cervical cancer have no symptoms, so screening (testing for the condition in people with no symptoms) is important.


The diagnosis may be based on screening for changes in cervical cells. Women are regularly screened (tested without symptoms) for cervical cancer, and the most common test for screening is a Pap smear. This test involves sampling cells from the cervix and looking at them under a microscope. If there are signs that a cancer could be developing, a biopsy (a bigger sample of the cervix) may be needed to identify the type of cancer.


If there are cells on the cervix that have a high chance of becoming a cancer over time, these are removed with a procedure called a large loop excision (of the) transformation zone (a LLETZ procedure). Treatment of cervical cancer depends on the size of the cancer, the exact type of cancer and whether the cancer has spread. The combination of these factors decides the stage of the cancer. Depending on the stage, cervical cancer can be treated by radiotherapy, surgery and chemotherapy or a combination of therapies. The treating doctor can give the best advice as to treatment.


Vaccination against the wart virus helps to prevent most cases of cervical cancer. This is currently given to girls between the ages of 9 and 14 as a part of national immunization programs. Screening (Pap tests) for cervical cancer is also very important because it allows cervical cancer to be detected and treated at an early stage. Using a condom during sexual intercourse helps to avoid the major cause of cervical cancer, the human papilloma virus (HPV or wart virus).

Nipah Virus: Symptoms, prevention, treatment of the infection

What is the Nipah Virus?
The NiV is an emerging zoonotic pathogen (a virus transmitted to humans frovirum animals) with disturbing abilities.

First detected in Kampung Sungai Nipah, Malaysia, in 1998, pigs were the intermediate hosts. No cases were reported after in Malaysia and Singapore. However, the natural hosts are fruit bats (Pteropodidae family, Pteropus genus).

In 2004, people in Bangladesh contracted the infection after consuming contaminated fruit .


How does it spread?
The virus spreads directly from human-to-human through close contact with people’s secretions and excretions. Eating partially-eaten fruits by infected bats and partially-cooked meat of infected animals can also trigger the virus. Drinking date palm sap/toddy/juice can also cause the infection.

Signs and symptoms
This infection can occur in humans without showing any symptoms. However, it is essential for people to look out for influenza-like symptoms. Fever, sore throat, headaches, vomiting and muscle pain (myalgia) are some of the common signs.The infection progresses to acute respiratory infection (mild to severe) causing interference in breathing. During this phase, people experience atypical pneumonia and acute respiratory distress, which further  leads to severe problems.It further advances to fatal encephalitis, which means causing inflammation of the brain tissue. The symptoms further lead to drowsiness, dizziness, altered consciousness and neurological signs. In severe cases, seizures and encephalitis occur, progressing to a state of coma within 24 to 48 hours.

– Avoid close (unprotected) physical contact with infected people
– Wear NH95-grade and higher masks
– Wash hands regularly with soap
– Avoid consuming partly eaten fruits or unpasteurised fruit juices
– Avoid being around anima pens
– Boil freshly collected date palm juice before consuming
– Thoroughly wash and peel fruits before consuming
– Maintain your and children’s personal hygiene
– Cover your household properly

Currently, there is no vaccine or drug available for humans or animals. The primary treatment is intensive supportive care for people suffering from severe respiratory and neurologic complications.From contracting the disease to the onset of the symptoms, the incubation period ranges between 4 and 14 days. In some case, an incubation period of 45 days has also been reported.People are expected to make full recovery after surviving acute enncephalitis. However, survivors have shown long-term neurological conditions like seizure disorder and personality changes. After recovery, a small number of people are seen to have relapsed or developed delayed onset encephalitis.

Breastfeeding For 6 Months Can Help Reduce Diabetes Risk

According to a study, women who breastfeed for 6 months or more have almost half the risk of type 2 diabetes during their childbearing years. The study revealed a significant association between duration of breastfeeding and reduced risk of diabetes, even after all other possible risk factors were accounted for. Women breastfeeding for 6 months or longer after all births had a 47% reduced risk of type 2 diabetes in comparison to women not breastfeeding at all. Those breastfeeding for 6 months or less had a 25% reduced risk of diabetes. Data was analyzed from the CARDIA study 30 year follow up.[1]

These findings add to the increasing evidence of the protective effects that breastfeeding has for mothers as well as their children, which includes reducing the risk of ovarian and breast cancer for the mother. Diabetes incidence decreased proportionately as duration of breastfeeding increased, regardless of gestational diabetes, race, body size, lifestyle behaviors, as well as metabolic risk factors taken into account prior to pregnancy, which implies that it’s possible the underlying mechanism could be biological. A number of probable biological mechanisms exist for breastfeeding’s protective effects, which includes how the hormones associated with lactation influence the pancreatic cells which control levels of blood insulin and thus influence blood sugar.

It’s been known for some time now of the many benefits for both mothers and their offspring that breastfeeding has. This study now shows strong protection for mothers breastfeeding for months after delivery, with a possible reduced risk of type 2 diabetes by up to a half as they get older. The study participants were 1,238 women without diabetes when enrolling in CARDIA, or before their ensuing pregnancies. Each participant had at least 1 birth over the course of the next 30 years and was screened regularly for diabetes. Lifestyle behaviors (like physical activity and diet) were also reported as well as total breastfeeding duration.

Unlike prior breastfeeding studies that relied on self-reporting of the onset of diabetes and started to follow women later in their lives, in this study women were able to be followed specifically throughout the childbearing time period and screened regularly for diabetes prior to and following pregnancies. Pre-pregnancy metabolic risk was also able to be accounted for, which included fasting glucose and insulin, obesity, perinatal outcomes, diabetes family history, and lifestyle behaviors.

Source : https://www.ahealthblog.com/breastfeeding-for-6-months-can-help-reduce-diabetes-risk.html

12 ways to develop healthy habits

By Maje Ayida

There are many diets, different weight loss fads, new tricks, pills and much more, for losing weight. All promise to be revolutionary and create a new you. Some work and some don’t. But who are we to judge?

Years ago trans fat, a dangerous, man-made lipid found in margarine, was thought to be healthier than regular fats. By the mid-90s, public health journals revealed the opposite to be true.

If the scientists sometimes get it wrong, it is safe to say that understanding the nuances of nutrition can be tricky and hard to follow.

So, sometimes the best way to lose weight is to ignore trends and fly-by-night advice, and instead focus on healthy eating strategies.

When delivering wellness seminars, one thing I consistently go on about is Healthy Habits. Develop healthy habits, stick to them, and no matter what nutrition blunders you might make, you’ll still keep yourself on the road to a slim and sexy physique.

Beyond that, being a disciplined person with good habits translates to success.

Eat an early dinner. Recent studies on obesity have found that adults that regularly eat after 8 pm ingested the most calories and carried the most body fat. The key here is to stop eating 3 hours before you hit the sack.

Then, while you sleep, your body is better primed to burn fat instead of creating more.

Reward yourself. Once you’ve established a healthy routine, you need to establish a reward system. Think of a land of milk and honey after a journey of tedium. You can’t stay on a repetitive diet without some form of a reward.

A great way to stick to a low-calorie diet without breaking down into rebellious binge-mode is to reward yourself with a small dessert twice a week. Pick a food you love and treat yourself to a portion of about 200 calories. But remember, you only get the reward if you deserve it.

Read diet and exercise tips. People exposed to nutrition and exercise advice are more likely to make smarter diet and lifestyle choices.

Eat breakfast. Skipping breakfast regularly makes you 4.5 times more likely to be obese. They don’t call it the most important meal of the day for nothing, eating a nutritious morning meal jump-starts your metabolism and prevents you from overindulging throughout the day.

For optimal weight-loss results, choose a breakfast dish with a healthy balance of protein and fibre, like eggs with fruit and whole-wheat toast. Many people I know think it’s okay to skip breakfast…it’s not!

Take snack breaks. Snacking sometimes gets bad press, but planning nutritious snacks throughout your day can actually keep you skinny. Healthy snacking keeps your blood sugar from spiking and prevents hunger pangs, cravings and body fat storage. The ideal snack choice? Nuts. Skip the meat pies.

Drink water. 60% of your body is water, which makes it vital to every important metabolic process. A study had subjects drink two glasses of water before each meal, they found that those subjects lost 30% more body fat over 12 weeks.

Making beverage blunders is one of the easiest ways to gain belly fat. Replace half of what you drink with water and see the benefits for yourself.

Choose whole grains. Choosing nutrient-rich whole grains over processed, white flour-based products can play a major role in keeping you lean. The healthy dose of fibre helps slow digestion, keeping you fuller longer. But do not be fooled by ‘made with whole-grain’ labels. True whole grain products will list whole grains first on their ingredients list.

Eat spicy food. Eating a spicy appetiser before a meal can make you eat significantly less than someone eating a non-spicy appetiser.

The explanation: a chemical compound called capsaicin, found in chilli peppers, acts as an appetite suppressant. That and really spicy food can just be plain tough to eat. It’s common in this neck of the woods, but I struggle with spicy stuff, and I know I’m not alone.

Sleep for 6 to 8 hours each night. Getting a good night’s sleep has been linked to a host of major health benefits, including maintenance of a healthy body weight. Lack of sleep has been shown to increase appetite, lower willpower, and bolster cravings for high-calorie foods.


Visit http://guardian.ng/contributors/maje-ayida/ to read the rest of this article.






Health Benefits Of Watermelon Seeds

WHEN you think of the health benefits of watermelon, the seeds probably do not come to your mind. You probably think of the sweet, juicy pulp without considering the seed as being good too. The fact is, watermelon seeds whether wet, dry or roasted make a great snack. The United States Department of Agriculture has listed different nutritional components of the seeds.


The seeds are very rich in protein. A cup of dried watermelon seeds contains more than 30 per cent proteins, which is the 61 per cent of the daily-recommended dose. The proteins in the seeds consist of amino acids, tryptophan, glutamic acid, lysine and arginine. Medline Plus states that some health conditions may benefit from additional arginine.


Some of the health benefits of arginine include; regulating blood pressure and treating coronary heart disease. Mineral found in the seeds is magnesium.


According to the U.S. National Institute of Health, magnesium helps to regulate blood pressure and the metabolism of carbohydrates, which has a beneficial effect on blood sugar level. Other important minerals in watermelon seeds are phosphorous, iron, potassium, sodium, copper, manganese and zinc.


The most surprising thing about watermelon seeds is the amount of fat they contain. A cup of the dried seeds contain 51 per cent fat. Other categories of deposits in the seeds are monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and omega-6 fatty acids.


The American Heart Association reports that mono and polyunsaturated fats reduce blood cholesterol, while omega-6 fatty acids can help reduce high blood pressure.